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apksigner error 1: A common issue in Godot Android export and its solution


How to Fix apksigner Error 1 When Exporting for Android




If you are developing an Android app, you may encounter an error message like this when trying to export your app for release:




apksigner error 1



apksigner returned with error #1


This error means that the apksigner tool failed to sign your app's APK file, which is required for installing and updating your app on Android devices. In this article, we will explain what apksigner is, why you need it, what causes this error, and how to fix it step by step.


What is apksigner and why do you need it?




apksigner is a tool that lets you sign and verify APKs




apksigner is a command-line tool that is part of the Android SDK build tools. It lets you sign APKs (Android application packages) and confirm that their signatures are valid on all supported versions of Android. Signing an APK means attaching a digital certificate to it that identifies the author of the app and ensures that the app has not been tampered with.


Signing your APK is required for installing and updating your app on Android devices




Android requires that all apps be digitally signed with a certificate before they can be installed or updated on a device. This ensures that users can trust that the app comes from a legitimate source and has not been modified by a third party. Signing your APK also enables features such as Google Play App Signing, which lets Google manage and protect your app's signing key for you.


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What causes apksigner error 1 and how to avoid it?




apksigner error 1 means that the tool failed to sign the APK




When you use apksigner to sign an APK, you need to provide some information such as the keystore file, the key alias, and the passwords for both. The tool then uses this information to generate a signature for the APK and attach it to the file. If something goes wrong during this process, the tool returns an error code of 1, indicating that it failed to sign the APK.


Common causes of apksigner error 1 are:




Incorrect or missing keystore or key information




A keystore is a file that contains one or more private keys that are used to sign your app. A key alias is a name that identifies a specific key in the keystore. You need to provide the correct keystore file, key alias, and passwords for both when signing your APK. If you provide the wrong information or leave any of them blank, apksigner will not be able to sign your APK and will return an error 1.


Incompatible or outdated SDK build tools or JDK version




SDK build tools are a set of tools that are used to build, test, and debug Android apps. JDK (Java Development Kit) is a software package that contains the Java compiler and other tools that are required to run Java programs. apksigner is one of the SDK build tools that depends on the JDK to function properly. You need to have the latest version of SDK build tools and JDK 8 or higher installed on your computer when signing your APK. If you have an older or incompatible version of either of them, apksigner may not work as expected and may return an error 1.


Modifying the APK after signing it




After you sign your APK, you should not make any changes to it, such as adding or removing files, renaming or moving folders, or using other tools to optimize or compress it. Doing so will invalidate the signature and cause apksigner to fail when verifying the APK. You should always sign your APK as the last step before exporting it for release. If you need to modify your APK after signing it, you need to sign it again with the same keystore and key.


How to fix apksigner error 1 step by step?




Step 1: Check your keystore and key information




Make sure you have a valid keystore file and key alias




A keystore file is usually a file with a .jks or .keystore extension that contains one or more private keys that are used to sign your app. A key alias is a name that identifies a specific key in the keystore. You can create a keystore file and a key alias using tools such as Android Studio, Keytool, or KeyStore Explorer. You need to provide the exact path and name of the keystore file and the key alias when signing your APK. For example:


apksigner sign --ks mykeystore.jks --ks-key-alias mykeyalias myapp.apk


If you do not have a keystore file or a key alias, you need to create one before signing your APK. If you have forgotten your keystore file or key alias, you can try to find them using tools such as KeyStore Explorer or Android Studio.


Make sure you enter the correct passwords for your keystore and key




When you create a keystore file and a key alias, you need to set passwords for both of them. These passwords are used to protect your private keys from unauthorized access. You need to enter the correct passwords for both your keystore and key when signing your APK. For example:


apksigner sign --ks mykeystore.jks --ks-key-alias mykeyalias --ks-pass pass:keystorepassword --key-pass pass:keypassword myapp.apk


If you have forgotten your passwords, you may not be able to recover them unless you have a backup of your keystore file or a record of your passwords somewhere. In that case, you may need to create a new keystore file and key alias and sign your APK with them.


Make sure you use the same keystore and key for signing and verifying your APK




You should always use the same keystore file and key alias for signing and verifying your APK. This ensures that the signature is consistent and valid on all supported versions of Android. If you use different keystores or keys for signing and verifying your APK, apksigner may return an error 1 when verifying the APK. For example:


apksigner sign --ks mykeystore.jks --ks-key-alias mykeyalias myapp.apk apksigner verify --ks anotherkeystore.jks --ks-key-alias anotherkeyalias myapp.apk


This will result in an error 1 because the signatures do not match. You should use the same keystore file and key alias for both commands:


apksigner sign --ks mykeystore.jks --ks-key-alias mykeyalias myapp.apk apksigner verify --ks mykeystore.jks --ks-key-alias mykeyalias myapp.apk


This will verify the signature successfully.


Step 2: Update your SDK build tools and JDK version




Make sure you have the latest version of SDK build tools installedSDK build tools are a set of tools that are used to build, test, and debug Android apps. They include tools such as apksigner, zipalign, aapt, and dx. You can install and up


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